1. Metchnikoﬀ, Souvenirs, 97 (italics mine).
2. The work of Alfred Tauber and his colleagues provides the starting point
my reflections on immunity. See Tauber and Chernyak, Metchnikoﬀ and the Origi
Tauber, The Immune Self; and Podolsky and Tauber, The Generation of Diversi
Also formative for my thinking is Moulin, La dernier langage. The best general h
tory of immunology is Silverstein, A History of Immunology. See also Napier,
Age of Immunology. For a treatment that focuses on German bacteriology as t
crucible from which Paul Ehrlich’s thinking about immunity emerges (but whi
slights Metchnikoﬀ), see Mazumdar, Species and Speciﬁcity.
3. Anscombe, Intention, 84–85.
4. Metchnikoﬀ, “Daphnia,” 193.
5. Neuburger, The Doctrine.
6. Esposito, in Bios, gestures toward a similar understanding, though his enga
ment with immunity—both legal and biological—remains largely philosophi
rather than historical.
7. Kay demonstrates in Who Wrote how immunology’s privileging of speciﬁc
provided the template for the ﬁrst models of genetic inheritance.
8. Foucault, La volonté de savoir. Unless otherwise noted, quotations are tak