Throughout the notes, all English translations of Spanish-language quotations are
my own, unless otherwise noted. In most cases I have reproduced period material
using original spellings and diacritical marks.
1. Sermón predicado por el Fray Antonio Claudio de Villegas.
2. Ibid. Early missionaries, most notably the Franciscan Gerónimo de Mendieta,
also found the parable of “The Slighted Feast” (in Luke 14:7–11) to be evidence
of Spain’s providential role as the evangelizer of the New World. See Mickey
Abel-Turby, “The New World Augustinians and Franciscans in Philosophical
Opposition: The Visual Statement,” 10–11; and John Leddy Phelan, The Millen-
nial Kingdom of the Franciscans in the New World, chap. 1. On the history of
the Third Order, see Thomas Calvo, “¿La religión de los ‘ricos’ era una reli-
gión popular?,” 75–90. For some comparative context, see Brian C. Belanger,
“Between the Cloister and the World,” 157–77; and Karen Melvin, “Urban Reli-
gions,” chap. 5.
3. By “mature Catholic society” I mean that the initial phase of missionary Catholi-
cism had ended, replaced by a fully elaborated church hierarchy and pastoral
system of curacies, dioceses, ecclesiastical provinces, disciplinary and doctrinal
units, and so on. For the general contours of missionary activity throughout the
Spanish empire, see Adriaan C. Van Oss, Catholic Colonialism, 1–8.
4. In New Spain, the term chino could refer to persons of mixed African and
Indian ancestry (technically a racial admixture of three-quarters African and
one-quarter Indian), Asians (usually from the Philippines), or those with “Asian”
physical features. In the context of the Indios Extravagantes confraternity, the
term probably referred to Tagalog-speaking Filipinos residing in the city. On the
diﬀerent meanings of the term chino, see Ben Vinson III, “Studying Race from
the Margins,” 4–6; and Jonathan I. Israel, Race, Class and Politics in Colonial
Mexico, 75–77. For some examples of the term used in the confraternal context,
see Nicole von Germeten, Black Blood Brothers.