Epigraph: Juanita Jackson Mitchell, “Welcome to Baltimore” speech delivered at
the Annual Meeting of the Oral History Association, Baltimore, October 13, 1988.
1. The question of whether or not to capitalize terms of color associated with
racial groups, particularly with African Americans and European Americans, has
been a subject of much controversy, and there is still little agreement among other-
wise like- minded scholars. In this study, the term “Black,” with the initial letter
capitalized, is used to refer to African Americans because it refers to a people,
an ethnicity or nationality, a social- cultural group, not a biologically determined
“race.” “White” when it is used as an ethnic descriptor to refer to European Ameri-
cans is also capitalized. Both of these capitalizations are now recommended by the
American Psychological Association and are accepted by the Chicago Manual of
2. Hall, “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past,”
is perhaps the founding statement of the “long civil rights movement” scholarly
trend. This trend is growing and institutionalizing at a remarkable rate, as indi-
cated by the Long Civil Rights Movement Conference held on April 2–4, 2009, at
the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and the related scholarly website at
https://lcrm.lib.unc.edu/blog (accessed July 26, 2010).
3. Castells, Urban Question, 23. See also Harvey, Social Justice and the City; Katz-
nelson, Marxism and the City, esp. chap. 3.
Chapter 1: Traditions of Opposition
Epigraph: Johnson, “Negroes at Work in Baltimore, Maryland,” 12.
1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States: Population
(1930), vol. 3, pt. 1, 1061; Casey et al., Second Industrial Survey of Baltimore, 7–24;
Bruchley, “The Development of Baltimore Business, 1880–1914,” pt. 1, 18–21, 32–40,
pt. 2, 144–55.
2. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States: Population
(1930), vol. 4, 661–65, 674–76; Callcott, Maryland and America, 16–19; Brown,
“Maryland between the Wars,” 757.
3. The southern character of Baltimore City is explored in Ryon, “Baltimore
Workers and Industrial Decision- Making, 1890–1917,” 564–66.