Part I
1. Women’s role in representing ethnic differences is, of course, directly related to
and intertwined with the racial aspects of True Womanhood’s social meanings.
Only the Truly pure, the Truly pious, could become True Women. All others were
beyond Womanhood. Given immigration numbers and ethnic differences in the
population at the time, the “others” were Catholics and non-English immigrants
from northern and western Europe, as well as, of course, African slaves and
freedpersons and Native Americans. Mass immigration from south and central
Europe remained minimal until the 1870s and 1880s (Lieberson 1980).
1. True Womanhood
1. This same pamphlet was reissued by the author in 1880 under the title of Industrial
Independence of Women; Through Their Equal Income, and Equal Suffrage. Bryan J.
Butts was a resident of the religious community of Hopedale, Massachusetts, where
most of his pamphlets were published. The community as a whole “recogniz[ed]
and accept[ed] the obligations imposed upon [them by their Charter, or ‘Stan-
dard,’ and] had heartily espoused the Anti-Slavery, Temperance, and Peace move-
ments, and had borne faithful witness in the pulpit and elsewhere against the great
evils they were designed to overcome and banish from the world” (Ballou 1897, 13).
The Standard, or Declaration of Sentiments, of the community was signed upon
its founding, and was explicitly religious, antigovernment, pacifist, and activist:
“We hold ourselves bound to do good as we have opportunity unto all mankind,
to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, minister to the sick, visit the imprisoned,
entertain the stranger, protect the helpless, comfort the afflicted, plead for the op-
pressed, seek the lost, lift up the fallen, rescue the ensnared, reclaim the wander-
ing, reform the vicious, enlighten the benighted, instruct the young, admonish
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