Throughout the book, translations of Spanish-language
quotations are my own unless otherwise noted. The spelling
of Spanish-language terms and place names, which varied
during the period of this study, have generally been updated
and standardized. With a few exceptions, the spelling of per-
sonal names follows the original source. The spelling used in
the archival citations also follows the Spanish-language origi-
nal. Documents held in the provincial courts of Cliza and
Punata have not been classified and are thus cited here with-
out numbers. The same is true for the documents that were
consulted in the Cochabamba prefecture archive. To preserve
the privacy of the litigants and their descendents, in the few
instances that slander cases are cited, the citations appear
with first- and last-name initials only. Finally, a note on the
maps: administrative borders shifted during the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries, as new cantons and provinces were
established. To minimize confusion, I have opted to use
present-day boundaries. This means that some of the prov-
inces included in the maps did not yet exist during the period
of study; likewise, some places that were once provinces are
smaller administrative districts today.
Archivo Histórico del Honorable Congreso Nacional de
Bolivia (hereafter ahhcn), Box 93, No. 2 (hereafter 93-2),
1927, Guillermo Crus et al. to the Señor Ministro de Guerra,
fol. 7v. In 1900, Vacas was a canton in the highlands of Punata
province; it became a section of what is today Arani province
after the creation of that province in 1914. Vacas was also the
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