Notes
u
Introduction
Jeffrey Rosen, ‘‘Is Nothing Secular?’’ NewYorkTimesMagazine,  January , .
For the American case, see Skocpol, SocialPolicyintheUnitedStates and ProtectingSoldi
andMothers; andGordon, Women,theState,andWelfare. FortheFrenchandBritishcase
see Pedersen, Family,Dependence,andtheOriginsoftheWelfareState.
Through strikes that shut down transportation systems throughout the country f
weeks, the public rejected government plans to cut state-guaranteed benefits su
as retirement pensions for public-sector employees, particularly in the railroad. S
Touraine et al., Le grand refus. For an analysis announcing the advent of a thoroug
philosophicalreconsiderationofthewelfarestateinFrance(provokedbythepossib
need to refinance the system through personal tax levies), see Rosanvallon, Nouve
questionsociale, .
Lacey and Furner, ‘‘Social Investigation, Social Knowledge, and the State: An Intr
duction,’’ in Lacey and Furner, eds., State and Social Investigation, ; Clark, Proph
andPatrons. Today,the –Muséesocialfunctionsasanot-for-profitassociatio
that, in addition to its research library, dispenses information on auxiliary social se
vices such as drug rehabilitation programs, nursing homes, and geriatric program
and offers continuing education courses to social workers.
The French Social Security ordonnance of October , , unified the Social Insuran
Funds, which had been made mandatory by the laws of  and .This unific
tion, however, was not complete. Separate funds continued to exist, for instance,
the mines; and Family Allocation Funds maintained their independence. Funds we
managed by committees composed of both representatives of the public admini
tration and representatives of beneficiaries, who, beginning in , were elected
wage-earners.
Ashford, EmergenceoftheWelfareStates, –.
Topalov, ‘‘From the ‘Social Question’ to ‘Urban Problems,’’’ ; and Horne, ‘‘An
chambre de la Chambre’’; both inTopalov, ed., Laboratoiresdunouveausiècle.
Elwitt, ThirdRepublicDefended, .
Sewell’s pioneering book, WorkandRevolutioninFrance, set an example of scholarsh
that incorporated the fundamental significance of language and symbolic meani
into the processes of historical change and the social adaptation of artisans. Also s
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