1. In defending the peaceful, domesticated “cat” of Holland, the historian Peter
de la Court has portrayed the military imperialist powers of France and En-
gland as “wild beasts” (cited in Arrighi 2007, 239).
2. I’ve drawn on Roberto Esposito’s (2008) reading of immunization. Curiously,
Esposito doesn’t mention that Foucault explicitly linked immunization to
security in biopolitics in Security, Territory, Population (2007).
1. Cool(ie) japan
1. There are no reliable statistics on the percentage of emigrants from Shandong
and Hebei remaining in Manchuria until 1923. In an important essay the SMR
researcher Amano Motonosuke (1932, 33) divided immigrants into those re-
turning in the same year they originally entered, and those staying beyond
the ﬁrst year. In 1923 only 30 percent of the 350,000 immigrants remained in
Manchuria; however, in 1927 and 1928 over 60 percent of the more than one
million immigrants in each of those years remained. Later years reflected the
earlier pattern of 30 to 40 percent.
2. The only full- length study of the batou system, Nakamura Takatoshi’s Batou
seidō no kenkyū, published in 1944, seems concerned with depicting the in-
nate corruption of all the Chinese actors in this drama except for the hapless
coolies. The book is a thinly veiled justiﬁcation for the Japanese occupation
of China, in which Nakamura denigrates the batou system as “feudalistic.”
3. Later SMR studies consistently contrasted the rational, forward- thinking be-
havior of Japanese industrial capitalists with the miserly, conservative atti-
tudes of the Chinese merchants in Manchuria. See, for example, Hori 1942,
4. The colonial Bank of Korea cited Chinese Maritime Customs ﬁgures in
placing Dalian second after Shanghai in volume of trade in 1917 (Bank of
Chōsen 1921, 78–109).
5. Mantetsu chōsa geppo, February 1941, 205–14. This is based on ﬁgures from
the late 1930s, as no comparable ﬁgures exist prior to 1920.