1. On May 12, 1998, demonstrators were shot at with live ammunition by the secu-
rity forces. The death of six students sparked popular outrage, which was further
compounded by the spontaneous and organized looting and raping that claimed
hundreds more lives in the May 13– 14 riots in Jakarta.
2. Arbi Sanit is a well- known senior political scientist and professor at the University
of Indonesia. Rudi has spelled his name “Arby Sanit” in his diary.
3. D. Rudi Haryanto, unpublished diary, 1997– 1998, personal collection of Do-
4. Thus I use these terms with some interchangeability in this book, while issuing
a reminder here that “youth” or pemuda presents a sociological and historically
situated category of analysis, whereas “activist” ushers us into a political lexicon of
seemingly global signiﬁcance.
5. See Ian Wilson’s essay (2014) on the vigilante actions of organizations that foment
violence, such as the extremist Islamic Defenders Front.
6. Dedicated collections at North American and Dutch institutions that have tra-
ditionally hosted centers for Southeast Asian or Indonesian studies provide a
wealth of Indonesian- language resources outside Indonesia. In the politically
repressive New Order years, librarians and researchers paid special attention to
media sources and political ephemera that would otherwise have been lost. I have
consulted Cornell University’s collections at the Kroch Library, the iisg’s unique
collections on 1980s– 1990s Indonesian activism in the Netherlands, and my own
acquired collections in the writing of this book.