1 All names for hotels are pseudonyms, as are the names of all women, their part-
ners, and their children. In some cases I have changed the gender and/or specific
profession of other interviewees in order to mask their identities. I have also
altered details in women’s stories in order to make them less identifiable. For
example, city names may be changed, and family members’ titles may be changed
(aunt instead of grandmother, etc.), when the general meaning of the narrative is
not significantly altered as a result of the change.
2 The vast majority, although not all, of the hotel managers I interacted with during
my fieldwork were from the State of Gujarat in western India.
3 “5150” is the police code for a mandatory arrest, followed by a seventy- two-hour
mandatory lockdown psychiatric hospitalization for harm to self or harm to
4 First Steps is a pseudonym.
5 The women in this ethnographic study used a variety of substances, and most were
polysubstance users. These substances included stimulants (methamphetamine
and crack cocaine) and opiates/opioids like heroin and opioid- based pain medica-
tions (e.g., “pain killers” such as synthetic morphine, Codeine, Vicodin, and Dilau-
did). Opiates/opioids were accessed through prescription, bought off the street, or
administered through a drug substitution drug treatment facility (e.g., methadone
clinic). Some women also drank alcohol, although this was less common. The most
prevalent and frequently used substance in the daily- rent hotels was crack cocaine.
Almost all of the women whom I worked with closely smoked cigarettes.
6 Nora Volkow, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Comorbidity: Addiction and
Other Mental Illnesses, nida Research Report Series.
7 U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from
the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. http://archive, accessed March 15,
8 Patrick et al., “Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Associated Health Care Ex-
penditures,” 1934.
9 Szabo, “Number of Painkiller- Addicted Newborns Triples in 10 Years,” 1.
10 U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Ap-
plied Studies, The nsduh Report: Substance Use among Women during Pregnancy
and Following Childbirth; Carpenter, “Nature of the Problem and State of the Field.”
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