ARDE (Democratic Revolutionary Alliance):
This was an armed organization founded
in 1982 by Edén Pastora and Alfonso Robelo in Costa Rica. It was outside the
umbrella of the rn (Nicaraguan Resistance), but it was also eventually ﬁnanced
by the cia.
BLI (Irregular Warfare Battalion):
The eps (Popular Sandinista Army) organized
these battalions to ﬁght the war with the Contras. They were made up of
conscripts from the smp (Patriotic Military Service). Each one had approx-
imately 600 combatants. The Contras, on the other hand, had been organized
in task forces.
The Spanish term brigadista is used in Nicaragua to refer to the thou-
sands of national and international volunteers who served in the 1980 National
Literacy Crusade and subsequent local projects for education, health, and other
social programs. It has a military origin both in its etymological connection to a
military ‘‘brigade’’ and as a historical reference to the International Brigades
during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), which consisted of battalions made
up of antifascist international volunteers.
The Spanish term caudillo indicates a military-political leader in Spain
and Latin America. Historically, it refers to strongmen who have achieved or
maintained power through violence and personal relationships. It is often used
in reference to a dictator.
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency):
The United States Central Intelligence Agency was
directed by William Casey during the Reagan years. It organized different
factions of the Contras that were part of the rn (Nicaraguan Resistance) and
was in charge of their ﬁnancing, their logistical support, and their training.
The Spanish term compañero (also compa or compita) literally refers to