1. The Zong massacre is examined beautifully in Baucom, Specters of the Atlantic.
2. Baraka, Wise, Why’s, Y’s (Africa section). The “Black ivory” sequence was
articulated in a live per formance, which is printed in the transcript for Bill
Moyers’s Fooling with Words (Part One) tele vision program.
3. My utilization of haunted here is inspired by Gordon, Ghostly Matters.
4. As retold in Buxton, Haunted Plantations, 59–63.
5. Mami Wata also brings weather- related wrath and takes human lives if she is
oﬀended. Stories abound in communities on Ghana’s coastline about beach-
goers being violently grabbed and swept into the ocean as the ancestors’
vengeance for the slave trade.
6. See Rediker, The Slave Ship.
7. I cite the Middle Passage as a signiﬁcant moment in the history of Pan-
Africanism in which there was an eruption of Black radicalism and to acknowl-
edge the Middle Passage’s signiﬁcance to more recent flights of the imagination.
The Flying Africans myth is re imagined in a range of African diasporic literary
texts, including Lovelace, Salt; Marshall, Praisesong for the Widow; Morrison,
Song of Solomon; and Schwarz- Bart, Between Two Worlds and The Bridge of
8. David Wyatt, quoted in S. Jackson and Moody- Freeman, “The Black Imagina-
tion and the Genres,” 2.
9. For more on Afro futurism, see Dery, “Black to the Future”; Nelson, “Introduc-
tion”; Womack, Afro- Futurism.
10. Gerima and Woolford, “Filming Slavery,” 92.
11. In “The Evidence of Felt Intuition,” Harper beautifully examines the importance
of speculative logic to Black queer and other minoritized subjects who ﬁnd
that they must engage with the fantastic to realize social life.