n o t e s
Introduction: Normalization or Radical Democracy
1 I find Pechey’s essaydeeply instructive about thewhole frame of postapartheid culture,
but I do not mean to imply that he agrees with the way I extend his argument here.
2 This hostile view of gear, widespread on the South African left, expressed in force-
ful terms by the anc’s principal strategic allies—the trade union federation cosatu
andtheSouthAfricanCommunistParty—andsetoutindetailinHeinMarais’spersua-
sive book SouthAfrica:LimitstoChange, is also argued in several articles in the influential
Canadianleftjournal SouthernAfricaReport, suchasCarolynBassett’s‘‘Is gear Illegal?’’:
‘‘Many critics of the government’s Growth, Employment and Redistribution economic
restructuringstrategy,gear,arguethatitthreatensthesocialandeconomicwell-being
ofthepoormajority’’(24).DavidPottieandJohnS.Saulhavealsodiscussedtheconcept
ofnormalizationastheunderlyingideologyofelectoraldemocracysince1994;seetheir
‘‘‘Normalization’?: The South African Election’’ (12–16).
3 In chapter 3 there is a longer discussion of the views of Pillay and Adler and Webster;
here it should be noted that the later anc adoption of the neoliberal gear policy made
it more difficult for ‘‘radical reformists’’ like Adler and Webster to continue to accept a
version of economic democracy scaled down to such an extent.
4 For work on the restructuring of academic labor, the defunding of public universities,
academic joblessness, the exploitation of teaching fellows and adjuncts, the exclusion
of students of color, the degradation of critical and liberal studies by instrumentalism
and a marketing orientation, and the rise of a managerial class at the expense of faculty
autonomy,seeMartin;Bérubé;BérubéandNelson;Readings;SlaughterandLeslie;and
Rhoades.InaspecialissueoftheonlinejournalWorkplace:AJournalofAcademicLabor,Ihave
drawn some connections between U.S. and South African universities based on a sym-
posiumattheUniversityof Natal-Durban,withacommentaryofmyownandanotherby
thehistorianChrisLowe;seeGlobalWorkplace:AnActivistForum,www.workplace-gsc.com
(with a link via ‘‘Back Issues’’ to Workplace 1.2, December 1998, in which GlobalWorkplace
appears). Situating this book in the context of political struggles in the university may
seem gratuitous, but on the contrary, I believe it is one concrete solution to the prob-
lem of the location of metropolitan scholarship in the postcolonial world, one path to
solidarity and away from appropriation.The metropolitan university is not outside the
reach of the forces that constrain radical possibility in the periphery, and both may be
sites of struggle in the same general movement.
1. Radical Democracy and the Electoral Sublime
1 Gayatri Spivak’s discussion of this concept in several works of Marx (‘‘Can the Sub-
alternSpeak?’’275–79)isespeciallyrelevanthere,becausesheusestheconceptstomove
beyond Foucault and Deleuze toward a new grasp of political subjectivity and agency.
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