Notes
introDuCtion
1 The postwar Japanese American magazine Scene, based in Chicago and pub-
lished from 1949 to 1953, also extended the use of the term “nisei” to mean
second-generation Asian Americans, especially in its later years when the maga-
zine included articles about Asian ethnic groups other than Japanese Americans
to broaden its readership (Lim 2006, 116–17).
2 This is a popular claim among commercial airlines, premising quality upon ex-
perience. In 2008 Qantas Airline adopted the same slogan, “World’s Most Ex-
perienced Airline,” making the claim on the basis of having a longer record of
continuous operation than any other airline. Other airlines that have made simi-
lar claims include Finnair and Mexicana.
3 The history of anti-Asian immigration laws in the United States begins with
the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, followed by the Gentlemen’s Agreement of
1907–8, extending exclusion to Japanese and Koreans. The Immigration Act of
1917 further excluded Asian Indians from entry. The Immigration Act of 1924
effectively banned admission of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and Asian Indians.
The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 then added Filipinos to the list. These restric-
tions upon Asians emigrating to the United States lasted until the landmark
Immigration Act of 1965 that dismantled national origins quotas and banned
discrimination by race, religion, or national origin. This act effectively ended
systematic racial discrimination against Asians and transformed the immigra-
tion picture from a primarily European movement to one in which Asians con-
stituted a major part (Ong and Liu 2000, 155, 159). As a result of the Immi-
gration Act of 1965, Pan Am was able to begin hiring Japanese nationals and
eventually other Asians to fill the Asian language positions.
4 Pan Am was part of the very fabric of life in a place such as Hawai`i. For example,
in 1936 the yearbook of the main public high school in Honolulu, McKinley
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