1. In 2000 the mine was planning on beginning shutdown procedures in 2006
due to the low price of gold.
Chapter 1. Resource Frontiers in the Montane Tropics
1. Harvard Law School also investigated this incident. As a result of their ﬁnd-
ings and Amnesty International’s, the Norwegian government divested all
of its pension holdings of Barrick Gold Inc. stock.
2. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries was introduced
at the eleventh Conference of the Parties to the un Framework Convention on
Climate Change by the governments of Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica in
2005 and adopted at the thirteenth conference in Bali in 2007. Two of the major
international carbon initiatives are the World Bank’s Global Forest Carbon Part-
nership and the Australian government’s International Forest Carbon Initiative.
3. Rowan Callick, “Miners Hope to Restart Bougainville Gold and Copper Mine,”
Australian, December 28, 2010.
4. Rainfall data were provided by the Environmental Division of Placer Paciﬁc,
Ltd., the operating partner for the Porgera Joint Venture gold mine as of 2004,
when I received the data.
5. My use of the term primary rain forest does not mean that I believe these are
“virgin” forests (Willis et al. 2004) that are untouched by people. Rather these