index
Page numbers followed by f indicate illustrations.
adaptation, 32–34, 36
adaptive capacity, 157
adaptive cycle, 158–60, 234–35
agency: environmental, 18, 20, 37, 239;
human, 105, 112–13, 127, 155
Agrawal, Arun: grounding globalization
through place, 37
agriculture. See shifting cultivation
aiyandaka (upper elevation zone), 89; atti-
tudes toward, 103–4, 136; characteristics
of, 92–93, 95; environmental changes
in, 174; land cover changes in, 184–86;
migration to, 45, 82, 163, 180, 198–99,
222, 237; road building in, 82, 177–78;
spirits of, 82, 93–94, 113, 150, 237, 243n2;
tree species in, 189–98
alchemy, 6–8, 28, 229, 231, 239
Allen, Bryant: dry- season climate index,
172
alluvial mining: conflicts among native
miners, 63–66; contemporary issues, 16,
45, 65f; early history of, 49–51, 56, 62–64;
indigenous miners, 63–68; in Porgera, 2,
8, 26, 28, 45; Porgera Gold Mine develop-
ment and, 71–72, 208–9, 220; resilience
of, 159–60; tailings disposal and, 75–76,
209. See also gold; Porgera Gold Mine;
tailings disposal
altitudinal zones, 92f. See also aiyandaka;
andakama; wapi
ama (cleared spaces in the andakama), 95,
96f
Amnesty International: Porgera mine
violence, 27, 228, 241n1
amo (far away at the same elevation), 87,
89, 95
Anaconda (mining company), 71
andakama (middle elevation zone), 89;
characteristics of, 92, 95–97, 102–4,
179–80, 236; environmental changes
in, 174; land cover changes in, 184–86;
population of, 181; road building in, 177;
spirits of, 112; tree species in, 189–98,
241–42n5, 246n13
animals. See birds; dogs; marsupials; pigs;
pythons
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