1. Dean Beeby, “Canada $100 Bill Controversy: Mark Carney, Bank of Canada
Governor, Issues Apology,” Canadian Press, August 20, 2012, http://www
2. Ibid.
3. Grant Robertson, “Carney Moves to Stamp Out Fire over ‘Asian’ $100 Bill,”
Globe and Mail (Toronto), August 20, 2012,
4. Beeby, “Canada $100 Bill Controversy.”
5. Ibid.
6. See Somerville, Queering the Color Line, and Luibhéid, Entry Denied. In her dis-
cussion of sexology, Somerville explores the influential role that women of
color’s bodies had on establishing and adjudicating racial, gender, and sexual
normativity. She explains that “comparative anatomy located the boundaries of
race through the sexual and reproductive anatomy of the African female body,
ignoring altogether the problematic absence of male bodies from these studies”
(Queering the Color Line, 25). In Entry Denied, Luibhéid demonstrates how non-
white women served to rationalize restrictions based on psychological and
moral “deviance.”
7. “‘Asian-Looking’ Woman Removed from Canada’s $100 Bill,” Angry Asian Man
(blog), August 17, 2012,
8. Ibid.
9. This term gained popularity in the United States after the 1998 publication of
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