Note oN laNguage
Following modern Hawaiian orthography, I use diacritical marks—
the ‘okina (marking a glottal stop) and the kahakō (a macron indicat-
ing a long vowel)—for Hawaiian-language terms (e.g., Hawai‘i). Since
‘ōlelo Hawai‘i (Hawaiian language) and its Native epistemology are
critical and foundational to this study, I do not italicize Hawaiian
words, in order to avoid marking an indigenous language foreign.
Words such as “Hawaiian” are English words and therefore do not
require diacritical marks. Nineteenth-century and early twentieth-
century Hawaiian-language sources did not employ diacritical
marks, therefore I have preserved the original spelling of names and
words in these documents, with the exception of prominent names
that follow contemporary spelling conventions (e.g., Lili‘uokalani;
Additionally, I use “Hawaiians” and “Native Hawaiians” to refer
to Kanaka Maoli, or the indigenous people of the Hawaiian archi-
pelago. Signifying indigeneity, these terms do not reference Hawai‘i
as a place of residence and therefore are not equivalent to a term like
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