Introduction
One of the most persistent and pernicious myths of Hawaiian history is
that the Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians) passively accepted the ero-
sion of their culture and the loss of their nation. In 1984, in an article in
the Journal of Pacific History, for example, Caroline Ralston claimed that
the maka¿ainana ¯ (ordinary people) made ‘‘no outspoken protest or re-
sistance against the series of events which appear to have been highly
detrimental to [their] well-being.’’∞ Haunani-Kay Trask relates a story of
sharing a panel with a historian from the United States who, like Ral-
ston, claimed that ‘‘there was no real evidence for [resistance by Kanaka
Maoli].’’≤ Popular historian Gavan Daws dismissed Kanaka resistance
in a single paragraph, even though in the same book he continued
to document it.≥ Ralph Kuykendall interpreted King Kal¯ akaua’s and
Queen Emma’s resistance to takeover by the United States as anti-haole
racism.∂ But as Amy Ku¿uleialoha Stillman has observed, ‘‘Hawaiian-
language sources suggest a remarkable history of cultural resilience and
resistance to assimilation.’’∑
This book refutes the myth of passivity through documentation and
study of the many forms of resistance by the Kanaka Maoli to political,
economic, linguistic, and cultural oppression, beginning with the arrival
of Captain Cook until the struggle over the ‘‘annexation,’’ that is, the
military occupation of Hawai¿i by the United States in 1898. The main
basis for this study is the large archive of Kanaka writing contained in
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