1 Caroline Ralston, ‘‘Hawaii 1778–1854: Some Aspects of Maka¿ainana¯
Response to Rapid Cultural Change,’’ Journal of Pacific History 19, no. 1
(1984): 21.
2 Haunani-Kay Trask, From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty
in Hawai¿i (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993), 154–55.
3 Gavan Daws, Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu:
University of Hawai¿i Press, 1968), 291.
4 Ralph S. Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom. Vol. 3: 1874–1893, The Ka-
lakaua Dynasty (Honolulu: University of Hawai¿i Press, 1967), 187.
5 Amy Ku¿uleialoha Stillman, ‘‘Of the People Who Love the Land: Ver-
nacular History in the Poetry of Modern Hawaiian Hula,’’ Amerasia Jour-
nal 28, no. 3 (2002): 85.
6 Trask, Native Daughter, 153.
7 Nancy Jane Morris, ‘‘Ka Loea Kalaiaina, 1898: A Study of a Hawaiian
Language Newspaper as a Historical Reference Source,’’ (master’s thesis,
University of Hawai¿i, 1975).
8 Ngugi wa Thiong¿o, Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in
African Literature (Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1986), 3.
9 Trask, Native Daughter, 147–49.
10 The committee consisted of physician and activist Kekuni Blaisdell, indig-
enous rights activist alani Minton, activist Leandra Wai, entrepreneur
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