1 About the economy of the United States during the 2000s and the conceptual
strug gles to deﬁne the Great Recession, see Eichengreen, Hall of Mirrors.
2 Rush Limbaugh Show, radio program, 30 April 2009, 9:56 a.m.
3 John Paul Rathbone, “Donald Trump Evokes Latin Amer i ca’s Old Style Strong-
men,” Financial Times, 11 August 2016; Alejandro Corbacho and Jorge Streb, “Is
Donald Trump a Peronist?,” Latin Amer i ca Goes Global, 3 November 2016; David
Post, “On Donald Trump and the Rule of Law,” Washington Post, 29 May 2016.
4 The term criollo, like mestizos, refers to those described as a mix of indigenous,
Spanish, and, in some cases, African origins. In Latin Amer i ca, criollo was the
basis for mestizaje and the myth of a harmonic assimilation. In Argentina, the
basic racial repre sentation asserted that there were no ethnic or racial diﬀer-
ences in the country and that Argentina’s inhabitants were homogeneously white,
laying the foundation for the “myth of the white nation.” The rise of Peronism
exposed the prob lems of this repre sentation, giving visibility to a diverse popula-
tion. See Oscar Chamosa’s essay “Criollo and Peronist: The Argentine Folklore
Movement during the First Peronism, 1943–1955,” 113–14.
5 Interview with Irene and Elizabeth Segovia ( daughters of León Segovia), Buenos
Aires, 28 July 2012. Perón to León Segovia, 6 December 1946, scrapbook, per-
sonal papers of León Segovia.
6 “Perón to First Cohort of Worker Attachés: Speech,” Teatro Colón, 19 Decem-
ber 1946, Perón, Obras Completas, book 10, vol. 2, 145.
7 As discussed later in this volume, the military dictatorship that ousted Perón
in 1955 destroyed parts of the rec ords about the worker attachés, including any
systematic rec ord of the labor activists who went through the program. Yet it is
pos si ble to establish a precise number by compiling and comparing ﬁve main
rec ords: the numbers provided in 1964 by the sociologist José Luis de Imaz in
his book about Argentines elites (or lack of them), Those Who Rule; the lists of
worker attachés stationed abroad conﬁscated at the Presidential Oﬃce after the