appendix references
I first constructed a list of Filipino and Puerto Rican political officials and party leaders
from 1898 to 1910. The lists of officials are incomplete but relatively systematic,
coming in the form of official registers, reports, lists, electoral results, and so on. I then
collected biographical information. This information comes from lists of merchants,
professionals (e.g., from lawyers’ associations), and landowners in specific industries;
commercial guides on businessmen; municipal histories; and, for the Philippines,
Cullinane 1989. For Puerto Rico, data were collected by Angel Quintero-Rivera of the
University of Puerto Rico (who graciously shared his unpublished data). Other sources
provided systematic comparative data: Jackson 1906 for the Philippines and Jackson
1910 for Puerto Rico. Other sources are Blanch 1894; Choudons 1911; Gaceta Oficial
de Puerto Rico; Goberino de Philippines 1898; Gobierno de Puerto Rico 1897; Govern-
ment of Porto Rico, Bureau of Property Taxes, ‘‘Comparative Statistical Report of
Sugar Manufactured in Porto Rico from the Crops of 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911’’ (usna,
bia, rg 350, box 16, 126-14); T. Kalaw 1913; Magalhaes 1898; Official Gazette of the
Philippines; Secretary of Porto Rico, Porto Rico Register (1900, 1901, 1903, 1910);
Tuohy 1908; U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, ‘‘Coffee Exporters of Porto Rico’’ (usna,
bia, rg 350, box 16, 126-14); U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, ‘‘Result of the Elections of
February 3, 1902’’ (usna, bia, rg 350, box 293, 2710-26); U.S. Bureau of Insular
Affairs, ‘‘Statement Showing, by provinces, the names and political affiliations of all
the elected Assemblymen, Provincial Governors, and Third Members of the Provin-
cial Board,’’ Nov. 2, 1909 (usna, rg 350, bia box 605, 10265-38); U.S. Bureau of
Manufacturers, ‘‘List of Sugar Factories in Porto Rico,’’ July 7, 1909 (usna, rg 126,
file 9-8-20); and Dean Worcester, ‘‘Personal and Police History of Deputies to First
Filipino Assembly’’ (wpc, Documents and Papers 1834–1915, vol. 1, item 18).
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