NOTES
introduction: colonialism and culture in
the american empire
1. Taft to Root, Aug. 18, 1900, erp, folder t.
2. usmg 1899: 1:342.
3. Davis to J. Bird, June 1, 1899, agpr, ff, gc, pp, Caja 181.
4. Root 1917: 265.
5. Lowenthal 1991; Smith 1994.
6. See Brewer 1990 for an overview.
7. Guha 1997: 4.
8. Quoted in Rothbard 1958: 115.
9. Robinson 1972; Engels and Marks 1994.
10. Vincent 1988: 149; Ranger 1983.
11. Comaroff and Comaroff 1991; Cooper 1992.
12. Mitchell 1991: 34–35, ix; see also Prakash 1999; Scott 1999.
13. See Fanon 1965: 37–42.
14. See also Comaroff and Comaroff 1991: 4; Merry 2000: 6. These studies do not use
the term cultural power; I here adduce their insights.
15. Besides the classics (LaFeber 1963; Williams 1969), see also Deitz 1986, Caban
1999, and Ayala 1999 on American economic interests in Puerto Rico.
16. Seminal works here include Kaplan and Pease 1993. See also Thompson 2002 and
Vergara 1995, and especially, on American officials’ ‘‘orientalism,’’ Ileto 1999.
17. Ileto 1995; Warwick Anderson 1995; Rafael 1993a.
18. Ileto 1995 and 1999 and B. Anderson 1995 show that sanitation and health systems
constituted regimes of power. As we will see in chapter 1, the tutelage project and
its program of ‘‘political education’’ constituted a regime of power too.
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