1 Anthony Bouscaren, The Last of the Mandarins (Pittsburgh, 1965), 122–23;
Fox Butterfield, ‘‘Man Who Sheltered Diem Recounts ’63 Episode,’’ New York
Times, 4 November 1971; Ellen Hammer, A Death in November (New York,
1987), 298; Howard Jones, Death of a Generation (New York, 2003), 428–29;
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York, 1983), 325–26.
2 Malcolm Browne, ‘‘Coup Leaders Report Deaths of Diem and Brother Nhu,’’
Washington Post, 3 November 1963; David Halberstam, ‘‘Suicides Doubted,’’
New York Times, 3 November 1963; John Mecklin, Mission in Torment (Gar-
den City, N.Y., 1965), 276; Robert Shaplen, The Lost Revolution (New York,
1965), 111.
3 Roy Essoyan, ‘‘Celebration in Saigon Exuberant and Rowdy,’’ Washington
Star, 2 November 1963.
4 ‘‘Joyous Viet Crowds Burn Nhu Homes,’’ Boston Globe, 2 November 1963;
‘‘Jubilant Saigon Crowds Cheer Military Seizure,’’ Washington Post, 3 Novem-
ber 1963; ‘‘Seventeen Hours that Destroyed Diem,’’ Life 55 (15 November 1963):
36–40; ‘‘Welcome Coup in Vietnam,’’ Washington Star, 3 November 1963;
Beverly Deepe, ‘‘The Fall of the House of Ngo,’’ Newsweek 62 (11 November
1963): 28; David Halberstam, ‘‘Thousands Join in Saigon Rejoicing,’’ Boston
Herald, 4 November 1963; Stanley Karnow, ‘‘The Fall of the House of Ngo
Dinh,’’ reprinted in Reporting Vietnam: Part One (New York, 1998), 105–6.
5 Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake (Boston, 1972), 171.
6 John Osborne, ‘‘The Tough Miracle Man of Vietnam,’’ Life 42 (13 May 1957):
156–76; Robert Alden, ‘‘City Accords Diem a Warm Welcome,’’ New York
Times, 14 May 1957.
7 Cited in David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York, 1969), 191.
8 This argument is made implicitly by Chester Cooper, The Lost Crusade (New
York, 1970), 144–47; and explicitly by George Kahin, Intervention (New York,
1986), 66. Even Gabriel Kolko, who does not customarily assign much signifi-
cance to the traits of an individual historical actor, notes, ‘‘Little did the
United States realize in 1954 how momentous a decision it had made when it
chose to back Ngo Dinh Diem. That it would usher in a major phase of
American history, shaped to a considerable extent by the strengths, desires,
and weaknesses of one man, seemed unimaginable. And that the United
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