Local legislative body after 1870, and also national legislative
body (State Duma) after 1905.
Legal categories into which Russian society was organized
(soslovie/sosloviia)—including nobility, clergy, peasantry, townspeople
(usually divided into merchants and meshchane, or lower townspeople),
Newspaper feature article (human interest story, in factual
or ﬁctional form) printed across the bottom six inches of all six columns
of the ﬁrst and second pages, occasionally running onto the third page.
Approximate equivalent of a high school.
Wide-ranging political, economic, and social reforms
undertaken during the 1860s and 1870s by Alexander II.
Educated segment of Russian society that adopted a crit-
ical approach to the world and protested against the existing order.
Members of the liberal Party of People’s Freedom (Partiia
Narodnogo svoboda), known colloquially as the Constitutional Demo-
cratic Party; Russia’s main liberal party.
Network of left-of-center liberals and moderate
socialists, formed at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Democratically oriented government of Rus-
sia following the 1917 (February) revolution.
Moscow-centered group of romantic intellectuals (land-
owners and gentlemen-scholars) who felt that Russia should respect
and build on its own historical experience rather than follow Western
patterns of social and economic development. Flourished in the 1840s
and 1850s. Opponents of the Westernizers.
Monthly publications, divided into a half dozen or so
sections: Russian literature, foreign literature, science and art, industry
and agriculture, criticism, literary chronicle, miscellany (smes’). Typ-
ically about 300 pages; included discussion of world events and serial-