Note on Dates, Transliteration,
and Archival Citations
The Julian calendar (Old Style) was used in Russia until 1918, when it
was replaced by the Western Gregorian calendar (New Style). Dates in
the Julian calendar were thirteen days behind the Gregorian in the
twentieth century, twelve days behind in the nineteenth century, and
eleven in the eighteenth century. The dates given in this volume are Old
Style unless otherwise indicated (that is, when presented as dual dates
[e.g., 6 January 1877/18 January 1877] or designated as New Style
[NS]).
A modified Library of Congress system of transliteration has been em-
ployed (except in the case of names of Russian rulers and the cities St.
Petersburg and Moscow, which appear in their more familiar English
forms). All Russian titles (and most names) have been modernized;
however, it is important to note that most library cataloging systems
use a pre-1918 orthography (e.g., Otechestvennye zapiski is cataloged
as Otiechestvennye zapiski).
Russian archival citations in this volume include the following
abbreviations:
f. fond (an archival collection)
o. opis (a list of materials in a fond)
d. delo (a packet of materials in a fond; ed. khr. [edinitsa khraneniia] is
an older way of referring to a delo)
1. list (a page; or ll. for pages)
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