1. Anatole Broyard describes his engagement with illness as an intoxi-
cation; in opposition to his “sobered” friends, he felt “vivid, multicolored,
sharply drawn.” Broyard, Intoxicated by My Illness, 6.
2. See, especially, Mbembe, “Necropolitics”; and Agamben, Homo Sacer.
3. I refer here to Ludwig Wittgenstein’s notion of family resemblances,
in which a group is deﬁned not by a core criterion or essential meaning,
but by multiple similarities.
4. Silverstein, “Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity.”
5. Mak, Vonk, and Schriefers, “Animacy in Processing Relative Clauses.”
6. Aristotle, De Anima.
7. Frede, “On Aristotle’s Conception of the Soul,” 94.
8. Dean, A Culture of Stone, 8.
9. Daston, Things That Talk.
10. Within the United States, material culture is examined both within
the social sciences (that is, anthropology) and the humanities (that is, art
history); for an overview, see Kingery, Learning from Things; and Lock and
Farquhar, Beyond the Body Proper. Arjun Appadurai has also edited a book
that considers commodiﬁcation and culture from a global perspective; Ap-
padurai, The Social Life of Things.
11. Coole and Frost, “Introducing the New Materialisms,” 2. See also
Colebrook, “On Not Becoming Man,” for a reading of selected feminist
approaches to matter.
12. Bennett, Vibrant Matter.
13. Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women; Latour, We Have Never Been Mod-
ern; Barad, Meeting the Universe Halfway; and Deleuze and Guattari, A Thou-
14. Shukin, Animal Capital, 11.