1. Andrew Carnegie, for example, rejected a request from Boas to fund an
African Museum. See F. Boas to Andrew Carnegie, 11/30/1906. Professional Cor-
respondence of Franz Boas, American Philosophical Society Library. Philadel-
phia. For an excellent discussion of the politics of playing Indian, see Deloria 1998:
95–97, and for playing Sambo, see Lott 1993:1–12.
2. Peyote Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Indian Af-
fairs regarding House Resolution 2614, February 21, 1918, House Committee of In-
dian Aﬀairs. Subcommittee Chaired by John N. Tillman, Representing Arkansas
Third District [hereafter cited as PH].
3. Luke Eric Lassiter, who has collaborated with Kiowa writers and musicians
for years, reminds me that many members of the Kiowa speak highly of Mooney
and deeply appreciate his support and advocacy, which complicates Mooney’s
position even more because he was sincerely ﬁghting for the best interest of the
people with whom he worked. See Lassiter 1998:47 and Lassiter 2005a:32–33.
4. For a sophisticated and helpful discussion about how Boas’s concept of cul-
ture was diﬀerent from W. E. B. DuBois’s notion of race, see Evans 2005:152–89.
5. Several scholars oﬀer detailed analyses of this complicated approach. See
Platt 1991, J. Holloway 2002, and Gaines 2005.
6. F. Boas to D. S. Andron, 10/26/1933. Professional Correspondence of Franz
Boas, American Philosophical Society Library. Philadelphia.
Research, Reform, and Racial Uplift
1. The story I used as an epigraph (Bacon and Parsons 1922:251) was written
by Andrew W. C. Bassette, who, according to Waters (1983:105), was a member
of the class of 1903.
2. He succeeded in having the indigenous Hawaiians build much of the island’s
infrastructure, although they probably engaged in various forms of resistance,
as Mary Armstrong suggests: “The natives were awkward and very destructive,