N.B.All translations are mine, unless otherwise indicated.
W. R. Cornish et aI., Crime {Jnd the Law in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Dublin, 1978),
p. 170. See also Douglas Hay, "Property, Authorit:- and the Criminal Law," in
Douglas Hay et aI., A.lbivn's Fatal Tree: Crime and Soril'l, in Eighternth-Century England
(London, 1975), pp. 17-65; Michael Ignatieff, A Just Measure of Pain: The Peniten-
tiary in the Industrial Revolution I750-I850 (London, 1978); D. Melossi and M. Pava-
rini, The Prison and the Factory: Origins
the Penitentiary System (London, 1980);
Victor Bailey, ed., Policing and Punishment in Nineteenth-Century England (London,
1981); David Jones, Crime, Protest, Community and the Police in Nineteenth-Century
England (London, 1982); and Clive Emsiey, Crime and Society in England 1750-1900
(London, 1987).
Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth
the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan
(1975; New York, 1979), pp. 222-24·
3 Many important works have cleared the way for this kind of research. M. Foucault
in the archeology of knowledge; C. Levi-Strauss and R. Barthes in mythology;
L. Prieto in semiotics; M. Angenot, R. Robin, and D. Maingueneau in discourse
analysis; P. Bourdieu, J. Dubois, and C. Duehet in sociocriticism; J.-P. Faye in the
history of discourse; G. Genette. T. Todorov, and
Kristeva in narrative semiotics:
all have variously explored the horizons of a new perception of discourse, no longer
considered as the expression or representation of reality, but rather as the very
locus of its social construction.
4 The term intertext and its derivations have served as banners for a multiplicity of
problems and methods of research. Within the field of literary studies, it sometimes
serves to designate the transformations or repetitions operated by a text in rela-
tion to others which have preceded it: from this perspective, citations. variations
on a theme or a character, and pastiches or the simple reproduction of the rules of
a genre constitute an intertextual network linking the text to the literary field as
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