Researching and writing about an art collective provides constant remind-
ers that production is always social. With this in mind, I want to acknowl-
edge several people without whom I could not have completed this book.
First, I must thank a number of people involved with Art & Language.
For archival materials, images, conversations, correspondence, hospitality,
or some combination of these things, I thank Mel Ramsden and Michael
Baldwin; Avril, Dan, and Rebecca Burn; the Smith family; Mayo Thomp-
son; Carole Condé and Karl Beveridge; Joseph Kosuth; Michael Corris;
the late Sarah Charlesworth; Nigel Lendon; and Zoran Popović. Circum-
stances did not allow me to meet or correspond with Charles Harrison be-
fore his passing, but I would still like to recognize here the singular example
he provides for all scholars of Art & Language.
This project began during my time as a student in the Department of
History of Art and Architecture at the University of Pittsburgh. While I
was studying there, Terry Smith encouraged my interest in conceptual art,
and he remains a most valued mentor, colleague, and friend. Special thanks
are also due to Josh Ellenbogen and Kirk Savage for challenging me to think
about conceptual art in unfamiliar ways that proved essential to the direc-
tions that my research and writing took. Douglas Fogle, Gao Minglu, and
Giuseppina Mecchia were attentive readers of my work in progress, and
each provided important guidance and advice.
A number of other people gave me sustaining reassurance, flashes of in-
sight, or both, and each deserves my heartfelt thanks: Alexander Alberro,
Cristina Albu, Drew Armstrong, Bruce Barber, Gretchen Bender, Tony
Bond, Dan Byers, Luis Camnitzer, Kathleen Christian, Brianne Cohen,