1. Durham and Fisher, “The Ground Has Been Covered,” 101.
2. Most date the official beginning of aim to 1968, the year that groups of activists
formed the eponymous organization in Minneapolis and made a first, short- lived
attempt to occupy Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. Durham was director of the
International Treaty Council from 1974 to 1979, when he resigned amid factionalism;
by then the public era of aim had waned. However, a version of the organization per-
sists today:
3. The descriptor “settler colonial” is widespread in interdisciplinary Native studies,
but rarely used in art history. On the marginalization of this concept, see Hoxie, “Re-
trieving the Red Continent.”
4. I focus this study on Native artists hailing from the United States and Canada,
where a discourse about indigenous art and politics under settler colonial conditions
is closely shared. A thorough study of the specific impact of aim beyond the borders
of the United States has yet to be written, although Durham worked with groups
engaged in decolonization struggles across the Americas and Africa. Houle, the one
artist I discuss at length who lives within the boundaries of present- day Canada, at-
tests to the profound impact of aim on his political and artistic activity there. Houle
in conversation with the author, Toronto, December 8, 2013.
5. See, for example, O’Brien et al., Modern Art in Africa, Asia and Latin America;
Doyle and Winkiel, Geomodernisms; Mercer, Cosmopolitan Modernisms; Wollaeger,
The Oxford Handbook of Global Modernisms; Wright, “Building Global Modernisms.”
Bill Anthes uses the phrase “alternative modernism” to describe Native American
painting at midcentury in his book Native Moderns, xxi. In 2011 Ruth B. Phillips inau-
gurated a long- term project sponsored by the Clark Institute, “Multiple Modernisms:
Twentieth- Century Artistic Modernisms in Global Perspective,” including symposia
and publications focusing on indigenous modernisms from Africa, North America,
Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands: See
also Phillips, “Aesthetic Primitivism Revisited.”
6. Friedman, “Periodizing Modernism,” 426. Historian of South Asian art Monica
Juneja similarly writes that a rigorous approach to the global turn “demands more than
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