Introduction: ‘‘A City of Words’’
Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts
New York: Vintage–Random House, ); China Men (; New York: Vin
Random House, ).
Chang-rae Lee, Native Speaker (New York: Riverhead, ).
The idea that cultural texts offer symbolic reconciliations of social contradictions i
rowed from Fredric Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Sy
Act (Ithaca: Cornell UP, ), –.
Here Chang-rae Lee seems deliberately to rewrite Louis Althusser’s reading of ci
as ‘‘subjects’’ created by the state. See Louis Althusser, ‘‘Ideology and Ideological
Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation),’’ in Lenin and Philosophy and Other E
trans. Ben Brewster (New York: Monthly Review Press, ), –, esp. .
Marxist theorist’s first example, the subject recognizes the state’s authority over h
responding to the ‘‘hailing’’ of the policeman. Lee’s closing conveys his recognitio
this process is accomplished more sweetly and pervasively through the school syst
which Althusser would describe as an ideological state apparatus.
Virginia Woolf, A Room of One’s Own (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 
Christine So, ‘‘Delivering the Punch Line: Racial Combat as Comedy in Gus Lee’s
Boy.’’ MELUS , no. (winter ): .
According to Frank Chin, Daniel Okimoto was the first Asian American sociolo
apply the term dual personality to describe Asian American identity issues. My ref
is to this Asian American context. See Frank Chin, ‘‘Come All Ye Asian American W
the Real and the Fake,’’ in The Big Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Chinese American and
nese American Literature, ed. Jeffrey Paul Chan et al. (New York: Meridian-Penguin,
. The dual personality model may be contrasted with two similar terms, doubl
sciousness (W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk: W. E. B. Du Bois, Writings
York: Library of America, ], –) and marginal man (Everett V. Stonequis
Marginal Man: A Study in Personality and Culture Conflict [; New York: Russe
Russell, ]; Robert E. Park, Race and Culture [New York: Free Press, ], –
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