notes
Introduction
1
At that time’s rate of exchange, each locker cost just under two U.S. dollars.
2
I am not the first to produce such a title to describe reggae in Japan: a brief,
anonymous article appearing in The Economist on the first reggae boom in Japan
referred to it as ‘‘Trench Town East’’ (‘‘Reggae Music’’ 1994).
3
British punk was heavily influenced by the reggae music of Jamaican immi-
grants to England. See Hebdige 1979.
4
In the late 1950s ‘‘Japan’s Teen Queen’’ Michiko Hamamura recorded a popular
calypso tune entitled, ‘‘Banana Boat Song.’’ Calypso enjoyed a period of popu-
larity in the United States during the late 1950s. Hamamatsu’s popularity may
be connected to this popularity of the music in the United States, where she has
performed. See Hosokawa 1997.
5
The URL is http://www.overheat.com/riddim.
6
Masta Simon in a telephone interview I conducted with him on April 21, 2007.
7
This information is from the website of the Jamaican embassy in Japan: http://
www.jamaicaemb.jp/japan/index.html, accessed September 22, 2009.
8
Shinjuku and Shibuya are commercial areas in central Tokyo.
9
A sarariiman (salaryman) is a male white-collar worker. Office ladies are female
office workers, who usually have part-time, low-level jobs they are expected to
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