note on music references
any Trinidadian singers use stage names rather than their
given names. This is a long-standing tradition within calypso.
The given name is not a secret, but the moniker is usually a
means of amplifying the persona of the performer. I have adopted a
practice of referring to singers by their stage names when I discuss them.
The appendix lists the given names for the performers to whom I refer by
stage names. In addition, the discography includes both the stage name
and the given name of the performer.
Throughout this book I cite many songs. When I quote from songs, I
have chosen to provide citations for the specific recordings I used. I also
include a discography of all the recordings to which I refer, with one
exception: Duke’s ‘‘Get on Radical.’’ To my knowledge, a nonpirated ver-
sion of this recording has not been released on any compact disc. As a
consequence, when I cite lyrics from this song, I refer to a book of lyrics
(L. Williams 1991), not to a recording.
In almost every case, my first hearing of the music was either in the
context of a performance, on the radio, or on a pirated cassette tape. In
most cases, the versions I heard are the same as those on the commer-
cially available recordings I cite. In a few cases, however, such as Scrun-
ter’s soca parangs, the versions with which I am most familiar appeared
only on vinyl, and the versions released on subsequent compact discs are
not the same as the vinyl versions. In this case, I have cited the compact
discs that contain the versions closest to the original vinyl.