n ot e s
1. Stallybrass and White, The Politics and Poetics of Transgression, 50–66.
2. I choose the term “’hood” instead of “neighborhood” and other alter-
natives for “barrio” because of the term’s signiﬁcance in regard to social
struggle. Barrios in the United States—and in Latin America—have a
long history as a site of racial formation and social struggle for Mexican
and other Latin American immigrants (Dávila, Barrio Dreams; Koptiuch,
“Third- Worlding at Home”).
3. See Feldman, “Securocratic Wars of Public Safety.”
4. A. Gómez, “Resisting Living Death at Marion Federal Penitentiary,
1972”; Achille Mbembe, “Necropolitics.”
5. Quoted in Joseph Nevins, “Border Death- Trap—Time to Tear Down
America’s Berlin Wall,” San Diego La Prensa, July 30, 2002.
6. See Luis Plascencia’s genealogy of the term “undocumented.” Despite
the troubling history of this term, I have relied on it and related terminology
to underline its widespread usage in common parlance (Plascencia, “The
‘Undocumented’ Mexican Migrant Question”).
7. Davidson, Lives on the Line; Taylor and Hickey, Tunnel Kids.
8. The rate of anencephaly (in which babies lack brains and are stillborn)
in Mexican border cities is four to ten times the national average. Nogales,
Arizona, has the highest level of lupus recorded in the United States, and
the city’s incidence of multiple myeloma, a rare bone cancer, is among
the highest. On average, forty cases of cancer are diagnosed in Nogales,
Arizona, each month, which is ﬁve times the national rate (Levesque and
Ingram, “Lessons in Transboundary Management from Ambos Nogales”).
9. See Feldman, “Securocratic Wars of Public Safety.” Nightmares of in-
security and of the excludable others should be juxtaposed with Benedict
Anderson’s prominent notion of Imagined Communities.
10. Vélez- Ibañez, Border Visions, 67.
11. Ralph Cintron’s inspired ethnography, Angels’ Town, captures similar
discourses about cheros there.
12. Dunn, The Militarization of the U.S.- Mexico Border, 20.
13. Ibid., 29.
14. Ibid., 31.
15. Feldman, “Securocratic Wars of Public Safety.”