i n d e x
Agamben, Giorgio, 71, 101–102, 143, 144
agriculture, 34–35, 43
Allen, Jennifer, 139–41
Althusser, Louis, 117
Ambos Nogales, 52; race in, 79, 80. See
also Nogales (Ariz.); Nogales (Son.)
anthropologists/anthropology, 124;
and border studies, 18–22, 149n40;
and cockfighting, 135; and culture of
poverty, 120–23; Latin American, 74
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 18, 144, 149n40
Apache, 31, 33, 52
Arizona: anti- immigration measures in,
27, 51, 139–40, 144; decline of crime
in, 27; and old frontier, 33–34. See
also Nogales (Ariz.); Tucson
Arizona Rangers, 36
Barrio Libre: condition of tunnels in,
3, 126, 138; formation of, 16, 51–52,
58, 71, 110, 114; imagined geography
of, 3, 108, 110, 119, 138; notions of
freedom in, 52, 111, 124–27, 131, 145;
as refusal, 12–13, 109, 117–19, 123–31;
as site of feminism, 128; substance
abuse in, 115–17; Tucson’s, 33, 34, 99,
109. See also cholas; cholas/os; cho-
los; violence; youths
Beto/Chamuco, 89, 90, 125; at cock-
fight, 133; death of, 97–99
biopolitics/biopower, 100–102, 148n35;
bodily mediation of, 76–77, 88;
definition of, 17; and racism, 17, 88,
149n35
blanqueamiento, 77–79
Boas, Franz, 78
Bolillo, 68, 111
border, 76; decline in crime at, 27; flow
of weapons across, 12; inspections,
10–11; militarization of, 4, 8–9, 27,
41, 49, 77, 141; modern, 38–47; as
new frontier, 47–52, 75; old fron-
tier, 31–38; policing of, 40–52, 55–59,
66–70, 77, 90, 103–4, 113–14, 139–42;
surveillance at, 95–96, 99; US forti-
fication of physical, 46, 139–42. See
also new frontier
Border Coverage Program, 45
border crossings: author’s attempt at,
3–5, 10; Beto/Chamuco’s attempts
at, 97–99; chúntaro vs. cholo, 85;
criminalization of, 51, 104, 141–43;
deaths during, 56, 97; expectations
of violence during, 103–6; as ex-
pression of freedom, 51; filming of,
99–100; into Nogales, Ariz., 100–101;
subjugation during, 76, 84–85, 114;
undocumented, 16–17, 96, 103–6
Border Industrialization Program, 42
Border Patrol. See US Border Patrol
border patrol stations, 106–7
border studies, 18–22, 149n40
bracero program, 40, 42
California: anti- immigrant violence, 35;
Operation Gatekeeper, 51
Chavo, 112
cheros, 8
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 33, 35
cholas: of Barrio Libre, 128–30; em-
ployment, 81; fashion, 61, 81, 87; as
mothers, 81
cholas/os: criminalization of, 60–61,
67, 71, 73–74, 76–83, 137; empa-
thy toward chúntaros, 86; fashion,
61, 80–83, 87; identity, 71; passing
for US citizens, 83; perceptions of,
6, 67, 73–74, 80; as reflection of
sovereignty- making warfare and
policing, 74; violence against, 66–71,
137; violence against chúntaros, 77,
84–85, 87. See also youths
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