Speculating on Sense
1 Arthur, “Thinking City,” 56.
2 The research conducted in Songdo, South Korea, was done in collaboration with
two architect- designers, Nerea Cavillo and Jesse LeCavalier, and with the excel-
lent assistance and translation help of the electronic arts curator Dooeun Choi.
I am indebted to all of them for the inspiration and education they provided.
3 “Korean Free Economic Zones,” fez Planning Oﬃce, Republic of Korea, ac-
cessed October 1, 2012, www.fez.go.kr/en/incheon- fez.jsp.
4 Taken from promotional materials and interviews with the ifez oﬃcials Kyung-
Sik Chung (director of cultural aﬀairs) and Jongwon Kim (director of marketing
and development for ifez Authority), on July 4, 2012. “Incheon Free Economic
Zone,” Wikipedia, accessed October 1, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
/Incheon_Free_Economic_Zone#Yeongjong_Island, and the ifez website,
5 Schelemetic, “Rise of the First Smart Cities,” last modiﬁed September 20, 2011,
accessed October 12, 2012, http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/2011/09/20/the
- rise-of-the-ﬁrst-smart-cities/; Arthur, “Thinking City,” posted January 11,
2012, accessed October 12, 2012, http://www.songdo.com/songdo- international
6 Keller Easterling labels these cities “spatial products.” Easterling, Enduring Inno-
7 Engineers, planners, and marketers all agreed that “smartness” and “ubiquity”
were not really deﬁnable terms, but they were useful as a goal and ideal. From
interviews with Tony Kim, senior vertical manager at Public Sector Internet
Business Solutions Group, Cisco Systems, July 6, 2012, and Gui Nam Choi, client
solutions executive, Cisco, July 6, 2012.
8 ibm has an entire new management consulting service branded around “smart
planet” services; see the website of this service, accessed August 7, 2012, www
.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/?ca=v_smarterplanet. Cisco is planning to also
retroﬁt itself into a more consulting service oriented company rather than only
or mainly selling hardware like routers for digital infrastructure. In building
these cities, Cisco’s role is largely as the management consulting and strategy
ﬁrm for high- tech services. The conduits, routing systems, sensors, telecomm
towers, and other hard portions of the infrastructure are built by telecom com-
panies Cisco is partnered with, in this case Korean Telcom (kT), and the build-