n o t e s
1 On the ‘‘new’’ biographical criticism, see William Epstein; and Ho√mann.
I Scream, Therefore I Am
1 On the honorable mention that Arenas received in 1965 and 1966 for Celestino
antes del alba and El mundo alucinante, respectively, see ‘‘Notas de la uneac’’
and ‘‘Premio uneac de Novela Cirilo Villaverde.’’ In 1968 Arenas submitted
Con los ojos cerrados to the Premio Casa de las Américas (not to the literary
competition sponsored by uneac as the Diccionario de la literatura cubana in-
correctly claims), but it did not receive an honorable mention. One juror, the
Chilean Jorge Edwards, publicly expressed admiration for La vieja Rosa, a
short novel that was included in Arenas’s collection. The Uruguayan literary
critic Ángel Rama, who contrary to Arenas’s claim was not among the jurors,
smuggled a copy of the manuscript of Con los ojos cerrados out of Cuba and
published it in Montevideo in 1972. Another copy of the manuscript, which
Arenas gave to José Yglesias, an author and journalist from the United States
who in the late 1960s spent time on the island doing research for a book on
Cuba, is now in the Hispanic Caribbean Manuscripts collection of the Uni-
versity of Notre Dame. See Arenas, ‘‘Conversación con Reinaldo Arenas’’ 56;
Arenas, ‘‘Memorias de un exiliado’’ 47–48; ‘‘Casa 68’’; and Edwards.
2 On Castro’s Cuba and homosexuality, see Espinosa Mendoza, ‘‘Historiar en
el vacío’’; Espinosa Mendoza, ‘‘¿Otro color para una Cuba rosa?’’; Fernández
Robaina, ‘‘Los homosexuales y la Revolución’’; Guerra; Leiner; Lumsden;
Morales, Vives, and Hernández; Salas 150–77; Sierra Madero; Young; and
Zayas. For an insightful account of homosexuality in Cuban literature, see
3 On the ‘‘new man,’’ see Guevara; Salomón-Beckford; and Sorensen 24–42.
4 If in Cuba, as in other communist countries, a conflation was made between
homosexuality and capitalism, in the United States in the 1950s a conflation
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