Unless otherwise indicated, all translations of excerpts in other languages are
my own.
Perry Anderson, Considerations on Western Marxism (London: New Left
Books, 1976); Martin Jay, The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the
Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research, 1923–50 (London:
Heinemann, 1973).
Ernest Mandel, Late Capitalism (London: Verso, 1978), 393. Compare
Alan Ware, Citizens, Parties, and the State (Cambridge: Polity Press,
1987), 161.
Richard Hoggart, The Uses of Literacy (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1959),
chap. 7.
Otto Kirchheimer, Politics, Law, and Social Change (New York: Colum-
bia University Press, 1969). See ‘‘The Vanishing Opposition’’ (1966), 336.
Guenther Roth, The Social Democrats in Imperial Germany (Totowa, N.J.:
Bedminster Press, 1963); Roberta Ascarelli, ‘‘Comunicazione di massa e
movimento operaio: le origini,’’ Critica marxista 19.1 (1981): 69–99;
Ascarelli, ‘‘Gli spettacoli di potere: ragioni teatrali ed emozioni cine-
matografiche nella socialdemocrazia tedesca,’’ Movimento operaio e so-
cialista 11.3 (1988): 443–52; Kurt Shell, The Transformation of Austrian
Socialism (Binghamton: State University of New York Press, 1962); Hel-
mut Gruber, Red Vienna: Experiment in Working-Class Culture, 1919–
1934 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
It is regrettable that Donald Sassoon, in his otherwise masterly One Hun-
dred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century
(London: I. B. Tauris, 1996), gives no consideration to culture or cultural
On Italy since the war see Paul Ginsborg, A History of Contemporary
Italy: Society and Politics, 1943–1988 (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990).
On the politics and organization of the pci see Donald Sassoon, The
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