ix
N O T E O N O RT H O G RA P H Y A N D
T RA N S C R I P TS
Because of the need to transliterate both Russian and Romani with the
least amount of confusion, transliteration follows the guidelines of the
American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages
(aatseel), except for conventional spellings, such as ‘‘Maxim Gorky,’’ and
bibliographic entries, which reproduce Library of Congress entries if they
exist. Other exceptions include (in Romani only) an H following the voice-
less stops K, T, or P, to mark aspiration; (in both Russian and Romani) an
H after Z, S, or C, which stands in for a hachek diacritic [ ˇ ] to indicate
strident and velarized fricatives or a√ricatives; an ‘‘Hj’’ after these same
letters stands in for a [ ´ ] to mark mellow palatalization of consonants (fol-
lowing Russian orthography as applied to written Romani). Some dialects
of Vlax-Romani (such as Kelderari) deploy variant pronunciations of rolled
and uvular r (marked respectively by ‘‘r’’ and ‘‘rr’’), and of stop and fricative
g (marked by ‘‘g’’ and ‘‘gg’’). These variations are marked in transcripts, but
not in already conventionalized spellings (‘‘Roma’’) since not all dialects in
Russia (such as Lovari and Xeladytka) would deploy them.
In transcripts containing both transliterated Russian and Romani, roman
typeface indicates the matrix language (speakers’ ‘‘original’’ choice of lan-
guage for the situation), italics the language code-switched into. Tran-
scripts and translations from both tape and video as well as from dialogue
reproduced from field notes appear throughout. These are distinguished
from each other by parenthetical remarks, such as ‘‘audiotape interview,’’
etc. Not all dialogue gives the original Russian or Romani: excerpts that
illustrate code-switching between Romani and Russian, or that include
special poetic or performative speech, give original Romani and Russian
transcripts as line-by-line translation. A double slash (//) in some dia-
logues signifies a point where the speaker is interrupted or resumes speak-
ing. The author is responsible for all translations, with special thanks to Ian
Hancock and Victor Friedman.
Previous Page Next Page