Paul Taylor, Respect for Nature (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
p. 33·
2. Joel Feinberg, "Abortion," in Matters of Life and Death, 2d ed., ed. Tom
Regan (New York: Random House, 1986), pp. 261-62.
3. Ibid., p. 271.
4. Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1983), p. 243.
5. Ibid., p. 416 n. 30.
6. For further discussion of different senses of 'person,' see Steve Sapontzis,
Morals, Reason, and Animals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987),
chapter 4.
7. Taylor, Respect for Nature, pp. 33-34.
8. H. J. McCloskey, "The Moral Case for Experimentation on Animals," The
Monist 70
January 1987, p. 65.
9. Ernest Partridge, "Three Wrong Leads in a Search for an Environmental
Ethic," Ethics and Animals 5 (3), September 1984, pp. 62-64.
10. Compare the use of 'person,' for example, in Evelyn Pluhar, "Moral Agents
and Moral Patients," Between the Species 4
Winter 1988, pp. 32-45, and
Evelyn Pluhar, "Is There a Morally Relevant Difference Between Human and
Animal Nonpersons?" The Journal of Agricultural Ethics
(1),1988, pp. 59-68.
See, e.g., Jerome Kagan, The Nature of the Child (New York: Basic Books,
1984), and Lawrence Kohlberg, "Moral Stages and Moralization," The Psy-
chology of Moral Development (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984). Major
elements of Kohlberg's enormously influential theory have come under attack
by critics such as Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice (Cambridge, Mass.: Har-
vard University Press, 1982), but his placement of the beginning of the process
of moral development in early childhood has not been questioned.
12. Regan, The Case for Animal Rights, pp. 84-85.
13. Ibid., p. 244. I will argue later in this book that Regan really offers two
criteria for moral considerability, both of which he calls "being the subject-of-
14. Donald Griffin, Animal Minds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1992), p. 10. As Griffin points out, references to consciousness, taboo in psychol-
ogy for generations after the adoption of behaviorism, are beginning to regain
intellectual respectability. See Bernard Rollin, The Unheeded Cry: Animal Con-
sciousness, Animal Pain, and Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989),
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