INDEX
Abortion, 3, 88-89, 99-100,148,
213, 220, 253-54,339 n. 104; and
contraception, 196, 211-12, 253;
and rape, 253
Action, generic features of, 241,338
n·79
Adams, Carol, xiii, 312 n. 139
Agency, conative nature of, 241, 252
Agents, 16, 79, 88, 239, 240, 249,
256,262,283; logically must ac-
cord rights to others, 240-48, 256,
259, 263-65; in original position,
234-35; reasons for their according
rights to marginals, 90-94, 96, 97-
102; should be accorded rights,
249-50, 338
n.
79
Altruism, 172, 175, 336 n. 48
Amoralists, 245, 263-65
Apes, 47, 49-50, 62, 77, 134,275.
See
also
Chimpanzees; Gorillas; Kanzi;
Koko; Lucy; Orangutans; Washoe
Aquinas, St. Thomas,
II,
46, 90, 128,
138, 227, 228,306
n.
54
Argument from analogy to other
minds, 13, 17,20,23-25,27,39,305
n·37
Argument from evil, 32, 37
Argument from marginal cases, 63-
66,67-68,71,126,139,177,179,
227, 232; alleged inconsistent, 74-
77; alleged to be reversible and
redundant, 72-74; alleged to under-
estimate many nonhumans, 81--'85;
alleged to underestimate marginal
humans, 77-81; biconditional ver-
sion, 64-66, 70, 72-73, 121, 122,
124, 126, 130, 136, 178, 180; cate-
gorical version, 63-64, 73, 75, 77,
81,85,1°3, 120, 122, 178; and the
endangerment argument, 87-95;
and former full persons, 113-20,
323 n. I; and potential full persons,
107-13; and self-interest, 95-101;
and speciesism, 126-29, 139; and
utilitarian side effects, 101-107
Aristotle,
II,
20, 28,154
Artificial intelligence.
See
Computers
Automata, 16, 19, 33, 34, 38, 44, 52,
254.
See also
Machine model of
animals
Autonomy, 2-5, 12, 57, 80,118,
270,271,315 n. 205; and the full-
personhood view, 57-58, 62, 110,
141, 205; and homocentrism, 46,
52-55,338 n. 81; preference, 4, 6,
54,274; and speciesism, 128
Babies.
See
Infants
Baboons, 83, 130, 149, 150, 152, 153,
155,157,158-59,299,326
n.
72
Bacteria, 8, 9-10, 12, 259, 265
Behaviorism, 7, 14
Benn, Stanley, xiii, 107, 108, 137, 145,
146,157
Bentham, Jeremy, 180
Bible, used to defend homocentrism,
11-12
Bigotry, 90, 91, 123, 126, 170, 263-
66; and allegedly rational prefer-
ences, 174-77, 235; and speciesism,
126-35,136,139,170,172
Biocentric ethic, 260.
See
also Biocen-
trism
Biocentrism, 9, 260, 262
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