Index
Abercrombie, Thomas, 10, 157
absence, 191–92, 213, 216; of witness in
legal proceedings, 217
Acosta, José de, 67–68, 273 n. 18, 274
nn. 18–19
Africa, 98, 104, 256
African American, 33, 43; identity of, 34
Africans, 9, 29, 34–37, 50, 57–58, 97, 99,
114–15, 134, 185, 195, 235, 293 n. 35; as
interpreters, 281 n. 52. See also casta
agency, indigenous: authorship and, 19;
cultural creation and, 9
Alberti, Leon Battista, 54, 180, 208, 238
Aldana. See Pastás
Alexander VII, Pope, 104
allegory, 60, 71, 90, 97; in portrait, 54, 59
Alonso X, King of Spain, 127
alphabet, 113, 116, 130, 140, 148–50, 170; as
form of literacy, 6; as ordering of chaos,
221; in previously oral societies, 5; ritual
Zapotec use of, 287 n. 2; Roman/Latin, 117
alterity, 26, 32, 42, 49–52, 116, 122, 154–56,
257; absence of signs of, 33; of criollos,
in relation to Spain, 268 n. 9; embodi-
ment of, in costume, 28; fear and loath-
ing of, 55; as means of political legitimi-
zation, 48
Álvarez, Bartolomé, 126–28, 166, 291 n. 25
ambiguity: of alphabetic script, 210; of an-
drogyny, 55; of ceremonial objects, 245;
of ritual acts, 204; of signatures, 204
American- born Europeans (criollos),
35–36, 57–58, 91, 92, 101, 115, 123, 128
Americas, 35, 42, 57–59, 65–71, 74, 78,
85–86, 90–93, 98, 102, 104, 111–13, 117,
131, 147, 185, 191, 196, 218, 222, 250, 257;
new pictorial genres in, 77
ancestry, 114–15
Anderson, Benedict, 31, 229
Andes, 31, 40, 42, 46, 69, 71, 77, 84, 105, 116,
118, 122, 132, 137, 147, 155–59, 175, 179, 185,
193, 213, 227, 232, 235, 240, 246–47, 254;
violent evangelization in, 280 n. 49
androgyny, 59, 74; as blurring of bound-
aries, 55
Ángel, El, 121–22, 158
ángeles arcabuceros. See angels
angels, 63, 73, 252; Archangel Baraquiel,
71; Archangel Michael, 136; as catechu-
mens, 313 n. 22; with muskets, 71, 74–75,
77; paintings of, 275 n. 25
animation through ventriloquism, 80
Anthony of Padua, Saint, 92, 253, 278 n. 39
antiquity, 65, 68, 155, 257; in documents,
160–61; falsification of, 173; New World
and, 67, 274 n. 19
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