1 See Lesley Milroy and Pieter Muysken, eds., ‘‘Introdu
Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspective
Switching (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
last forty years or so, developments such as the expansio
tional provision to many more levels of society, massive popu
through migration, and technological advances in mass com
have served to accentuate our sense of a visibly and audib
gual modern world. Other large-scale social changes have c
lead to a considerable increase in bilingualism, not only as
but as a world-wide phenomenon.’’ They add that ‘‘the relat
phenomenon of large-scale language revival . . . has often led
ervation, resuscitation and expansion in the use of minorit
which policy makers had already declared moribund and
the scrapheap of history.’’
2 Víctor Hernández Cruz, ‘‘You Gotta Have Your Tips on Fire,
Poems (New York: Random House, 1973), 3–4.
3 This is Saul Bellow’s frame for Ravelstein (New York: Pen
1: ‘‘Anyone who wants to govern the country has to entertai
the civil war people complained about Lincoln’s funny stor
he sensed that strict seriousness was far more dangerous tha
Robert R. Provine cites another model in Laughter: A Scien
gation (London: Faber and Faber, 2000), 32: ‘‘John F. Kenn
usual among U.S. presidents in having both a presence of co
an excellent sense of humor.’’
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