1. The book that Boguski was referring to was Paul Rabinow’s Making pcr. See Rabinow
2. Base pairs are the chemical bases that join complementary strands of a dna molecule via
3. For an insider account of the many things that happened, see Shreeve 2004.
4. For the most famous articulation of this point of view at the time of the fall of commu-
nism, see Fukuyama 1992.
5. For an elaboration of the notion of coproduction, see Jasano√ 1995, 1996, 2004; Rear-
don 2001, 2004.
6. The four criteria for patentability in the United States are novelty, inventiveness, utility,
and nonobviousness. In other words, for something to qualify as patentable, it must be
new, actually invented (and not simply discovered), useful, and not obvious to others
with prior experience in the field.
7. ‘‘Technoscience’’ is a terminology used by scholars in science and technology studies to
argue for the impossibility of considering ‘‘science’’ and ‘‘technology’’ as easy binary
counterparts to each other. I use ‘‘technoscience’’ through this book to refer interchange-
ably to the life sciences and to biotechnology, each of which influences and structures the
development of the other.
8. According to Cynthia Robbins-Roth (2000), 11 percent of all federal research and
development money was allocated to basic biomedical research, and the National Cancer
Institute alone was spending nearly a billion dollars annually on basic research by 1981.
9. Indeed, Buck-Morss (2002) notes that Marx always referred to capital, rather than
capitalism, as the phenomenon he was trying to make sense of.
10. For the notion of situated perspective, see Haraway 1991.
11. There are some significant di√erences between biotech and pharmaceutical companies,
which I elaborate on later in the introduction.
12. Marx 1974 (1894), 298.
13. This also echoes Gayatri Spivak’s 1999 argument with Fredric Jameson that postmod-
ernism is repetition rather than rupture.