To view all of the media discussed in this chapter, go to
1 In his discussion of Mickey’s Mellerdrammer, Donald Crafton notes, citing the
example of Bert Williams, that applying burnt cork did not necessarily confer
whiteness to the skin beneath. While he does not go so far to suggest either
that Mickey is black or a minstrel, he coyly suggests that Mickey’s “blackened
self is performative, different from his ‘natural’ ethnicity—whatever that may
be.” Crafton, Shadow of a Mouse: Performance, Belief, and World Making in Ani-
mation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), 124.
2 For a detailed discussion of Uncle Tom’s Cabin and its variations, see Linda Wil-
liams, Playing the Race Card: Melodramas of Black and White from Uncle Tom to
O.J. Simpson (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 45–96.
3 See the discussion of Lucky Ducky
1948) in chapter 4.
4 For one of many contested histories of “Dixie,” see William J. Mahar, Behind the
Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular
Culture (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 37. Tap dance, of course,
has as one of its antecedents the “eccentric dance” of blackface minstrelsy.
5 For a range of recent scholarship on blackface minstrelsy past and present,
see Catherine M. Cole and Tracy C. Davis, eds., “Routes of Blackface,” special
issue, Drama Review 57:2 (summer 2013).
6 For a detailed and illuminating discussion of Bamboozled, see Kara Keeling,
“Passing for Human: Bamboozled and Digital Humanism,” Women and Perfor-
mance 15:1 (2005), 237–50.
7 William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (New York: Vintage, 2011 [1950]). Barack
Obama, in the speech “A More Perfect Union” (Philadelphia, 18 March 2008),
said, “Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at
this point. As William Faulkner once wrote, ‘The past isn’t dead and buried.
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