1. See appendix A for the full text of at 55.
2. The Chocó region of Colombia includes the Cordillera Occidental; the
Serranías of Baudó and Darien; the Atrato, San Juan, and Baudó river basins;
and the upper Sinú and San Jorge regions of western Colombia. The depart-
ments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Risaralda, Chocó, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, and
Nariño are within the political and administrative limits of the region labeled
the Colombian Paciﬁc. The 8 million hectares of the Colombian Chocó (6.2
percent of the country) encompass 5.5 million hectares of forests, of which 3.5
million are considered pristine or without major interventions. This natural-
resource-rich area supplies 60 percent of the total timber demands of Colom
bia, 82 percent of its platinum, 18 percent of its gold, and 14 percent of its silver
(Tulio Díaz 1993). In 1993, 2.5 million hectares of this area were in eight national
parks, and 1 million hectares were in seventeen indigenous resguardos, or in
digenous communal lands. The rest was considered tierras baldías, or empty
lands, belonging to the state, even though they were inhabited by a signiﬁcant
percentage of Afro-Colombian communities.
3. See appendix B for a list of the salient features of Law 70.
4. Beyond these binaries, the 1990s also generated many critical debates and
insightful accounts of the histories and contingent relations between develop-
ment and modernity (Cooper and Packard 1997; Cowen and Shenton 1996;
Crush 1995; Edelman and Haugerud 2005; Leys 1996).
5. These included Nicaragua (1987), Argentina and Bolivia (1994), Brazil and
Ecuador (1988), and Venezuela (1999).
6. The absence of military authoritarianism and the presence of formal democ-
racy notwithstanding, these problems and protests took multiple violent forms.
See Bergquist 2001; LeGrand 2003; and Palacios 2006 for assessments of the
complex factors shaping violence in Colombia and how historical factors bear
on this conflict in the twenty-ﬁrst century.