acadesan, (Asociación Campesina
del Río San Juan), 40, 44; Law 70
and, 54
acapa (Consejo Comunitario de
Comunidades Negras del Río Patía
Grande, sus Brazos, y la Ensenada),
188
Acción Social (Social Action), 169, 174,
208n12, 209n13; Land Protection
project, 188; Law 387 and, 170–71
acia (Asociación Campesina Integral
del Río Atrato), 37, 38, 39, 40, 44, 45,
49; black land rights and, 39–40, 165;
institutional politics and, 53–54; Law
70 and, 54; Women’s Section, 138, 139
Aerial fumigation, 166–67, 187; effects
of, 23, 157, 166
African oil palm, 23, 60, 158, 167;
expansion of cultivation, 168, 169;
US interest in, 168
Afro-Colombian/black women;
activism of, 28, 131, 137, 149–50, 151;
in agro-industrial sector, 132; bio­
diversity conservation and, 26, 149,
150; black movements and, 30, 131,
136, 137–38; as development cat-
egory, 151, 152; displacement of, 138;
economic development and, 205n2;
engagement with development inter-
ventions, 149, 150, 152, 153; equality
and, 139; Equilibrium Foundation
and, 187; ethnic and territorial rights,
147, 148; Gender and Development
and, 134; gender concerns of, 133, 139,
140, 141, 206n4; identity of, 135, 136,
137, 142–43, 148, 207n11; Law 70 and,
142; leaders, 137, 138; New constitu-
tion and, 139; pcn and, 54; rights
of, 134; self-help groups and, 143,
145; social welfare programs and, 62;
State policy regarding, 132; tener
needs of, 133, 134, 138, 151–52; tradi-
tional forms of organization, 131, 144,
145; whitening of, 143
Afro-Colombians/blacks, 2, 5, 36, 41,
73; assimilation of, 34, 35; demo-
graphic data on, 34, 200n4; elites,
37, 60; in exile, 181; heterogeneity of,
18, 27, 126, 127–28; interethnic rela-
tions and, 5, 35, 86–87; invisibility of,
4, 33, 37, 48, 155, 173, 175; isolation of,
34; national coalitions, 43; Law 70
and, 183–84, 196; oral traditions, 43,
146, 205n5; population census of 179;
representation in state institutions,
23, 51, 103, 184, 196; sustainable eco-
nomic practices of, 39, 69; traditional
politics and, 179–80
Afro-Colombian Subdivision, Office of
Ethnic Affairs, 184
afrodes (Asociación de Afro­
colombianos Desplazados), 175,
181–82, 183, 186
Afro-descendants, 28, 155. See also Afro-
Colombians/blacks
Afro-Latinos, 155; land rights of, 22
index
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