“Descubriendo nuestra identidad,” 1.
Forbes, “The Evolution of the Term Mulatto,” 57.
Alix was a well-known poet from Santiago and a master at poetically
capturing both the distinctive Cibaeño dialect and national race discourse of
his era. He was a proliﬁc writer, and his work appeared in flyers and most of
the country’s newspapers throughout his life. The popularity and wide public
dissemination of Alix’s décimas indicate their extensive influence. Indeed, he
often used his décimas as currency, trading them for goods in local markets
and stores: Alix, Décimas inéditas, 8.
Alix et al., Décimas dominicanas de ayer y de hoy, 15. Unless otherwise
noted, all translations from Spanish-language texts and interviews through-
out the book are mine.
Jenkins, Social Identity, 21.
I have chosen to use the historically accurate term “Uniﬁcation” rather
than “Occupation” to refer to the period between 1822 and 1844, when the
island was under the consolidated governmental rule of Jean-Pierre Boyer
and was known as “Uniﬁed Haiti.” An ideological component of the Domi-
nican Republic’s political and governmental separation from Haiti was the
nationalist reframing of the Uniﬁcation as an “occupation.” As critical Domi-
nican historians such as Emilio Cordero Michel and Juan Isidro Jiménes have
shown, however, this terminology is ahistorical and ideological. See Emilio
Cordero Michel, La revolución haitiana y Santo Domngo (Santo Domingo: Edi-
tora Nacional, 1968) and Juan Isidro Jiménes Grullon, Sociología polítíca domi-
nicana, 1844–1966 (3 vols.; Santo Domingo: Taller, 1974–75).
The myth of Haitian rapacity targeting innocent (white) Dominican vir-
gins was most fully articulated in Cesar Nicolás Pénson’s 1891 short story,
“Las vírgenes de Galindo,” a dramatization of a historic case in which the elite
landowner Don Andres Andújar and his three young daughters were mur-
dered in 1822. The trial concluded that the perpetrators were Dominican, but
the court of popular opinion insisted that the murderers must have been Hai-
tian soldiers. Pénson’s ﬁctional narrative incorporated many of the facts of