Index
abolition of slavery: Africans and Afro-
Caribbeans becoming Black in
France, 156, 167; International Cen-
ter of the Memory of Slavery and Its
Abolitions, 273; invention of Blacks
in France, 108–9; question of Black-
ness and the memory of slavery,
174, 182–84, 186–88, 193; site-ing
Black Paris, 270–71, 273, 276
absence of black community in
France, 103
adoptions by Josephine Baker, Rain-
bow Tribe family, 247–68
affirmative action, 110, 124
Africaine, Présence, 4
African diaspora, 4, 7, 12, 240, 247, 280
Afro-American, 20–21, 166, 217
Afro-Caribbean and African descent
Black identity, 3, 9, 145–72; almost
white Afro-Caribbeans, 150–51;
Association Nationale pour l’Inser-
tion et la Promotion des Trav-
ailleurs d’Outre-Mer (ant), 158;
asylum seekers, 159; becoming
‘‘Black’’ (again) in ‘‘Black France,’’
156–66; becoming ‘‘Black’’ in
France, 145–72; bumidom, 148,
158; changing profiles of popula-
tions, 159–60; color-based racism
intersecting with nationality-based
racism, 150; comedians’ sketches,
effect of, 158; denial of ancestry, 155;
diaspora experience and becoming
Black, 166–68; difference in status,
citizens versus foreigners, 154–55,
161–62, 168; distinguishing between
blédards and locaux, 160; distin-
guishing Noir (lack) from Nègre
(Negro), 150–51, 156, 160–61; edu-
cation, 148, 158; establishment of
antiracism organizations and slo-
gans, 157; exclusion of Afro-
Caribbeans, 160; filiation or ances-
try issues, 167–68; globalization,
effect of, 156–58, 162, how Africans
view Afro-Caribbeans, 153; how
Afro-Caribbeans view Africans, 152;
imperial France dynamics, 145, 149,
158, 166–67; interactions between
Africans and Afro-Caribbeans, 152,
154–56; intermarriage, 151–52; Inter-
net, importance of, 163, 166; labor,
148–49; living conditions, effect of,
157; Marseilles, 227; meaning of
‘‘Africa,’’ 164–65; meaning of
‘‘Black,’’ 160–61; music, importance
of, 163–64; professional training of
Afro-Caribbeans, 158; Programmes
d’Adjustment Structurel (pas), 159;
racist themes used by whites to
describe Blacks, 153; reemergence of
a ‘‘pannègre’’ dynamic, 294; Renoi
identity, 146, 160–66; skin color, 20;
slavery and colonization, 156, 167;
slogans evoking new multicolored
identity of, 157, 160; stowaways, 159;
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