Preface
to
the
1993
Edition
Every author who introduces the reprint of a monograph without
revisions faces the inevitable question: what changes would you
have made, if the publisher had not offered the irresistible option
of republication in the original form? Let me suggest a few an-
swers.
The hardest task for most intellectual historians is to tie together
the ideas in question, the articulators of those ideas, and the world
in which they lived and thought-including not only their socio-
economic context, but also the cultural institutions through which
they reached their audience and the nature of that audience.
Most difficult among these connections, and the one
I
feel
I
was
least successful in making, is the one between ideas, ideologies and
intellectual consensuses, on the one hand, and the socio-economic
reality that produced them on the other hand.
I
claim only to have
opened some avenues of inquiry, which clearly need further explo-
ration.
We still do not understand well, for example, the socio-economic
bases of the liberal, republican ideology (which included racist
assumptions) that triumphed in the 1880s. How was that ideol-
ogy-heterodox, complex, and inconsistent as it was-related to
the growing gap between the declining agrarian economies of the
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